of the edition of A Green History of the World (then out of print) for the We owe Clive Ponting a debt of gratitude for his pioneering historical study. Like Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs and Steel, Clive Ponting’s book studies the relationship between the environment and human history. A Green History of the World. The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. by Clive Ponting. pages, paperback, Penguin, A Green History.

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What Is Sustainable: A New Green History of the World

This book began well, and does offer some interesting insight, but while I anticipated a lot more reconstructions via archaeology of historical situations, what I got was mostly an indictment of colonialism and imperialism, for its exploitative practices in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, as well as the post-colonial fallout of the later 20th and early 21st centuries.

Books by Clive Ponting. It isn’t a “green history of the world” in a catholic sense, but a history of modern human exploitation of the world.

This is basically a textbook. Industries making glass, ceramics, bricks, and metals rapidly obliterated forests.

I have not read the earlier version of this greeen, and so cannot make comparisons, but much of the book is so well written, and other parts so badly, that it feels as if the earlier version was very well edited, and then the updates were inserted on a word processor. New York City was second with 2. Posted by What Is Sustainable at 3: Rather it is a striking example of the dependence of human societies on their environment and of the consequences of irreversibly damaging that environment.

Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Ponting’s focus is interesting because it highlights the variety of ways in which human activity had an impact on the environment and how different societies managed to organize sustainable ressource extraction with different degrees z success.

Like the Green Revolution disaster, GMO crops require big inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation — large fields, expensive seeds, rich farmers, big machines, and lots of petrol.

These items are shipped from and sold by different sellers. The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. Want to Read saving…. His book contains many interesting facts that may be useless, but nevertheless interesting.

We need to be able to relate our local surroundings to the grren misuse our ancestors practiced in order to avoid the same mistakes.

Please try again later.

A Green History of the World: The Environment & the Collapse of Great Civilizations

Mobilizing to Save Civilizationamong other sources are probably necessary to stem the tide of destruction, they cannot be sufficient because they don’t address the fundamental factors that have given rise to these problems in the first place – our very outlook on the world and the way it causes us to treat it and each other.

The first negative aspect that stood out for me was the book’s dry academic tone. Another influential read for histor. I confess that I stopped fifty pages before the end in fatigue.

It means there’s notable intentional omissions that only people educated in the order of technological discoveries in the United States would even realize were censored.

A Green History of the World

I also expect new references as well as old references. Can the collapses of previous societies provide clues to what is happening today? The incredible filth attracted countless trillions of flies that took great delight in spreading typhoid. Untilmost people travelled on foot. It examines world civilisations from Sumeria to ancient Egypt, from Easter Island to the Roman Empire and it argues that human beings have repeatedly built societies that have grown and prospered by exploiting the Earth’s resources, only to expand to the point where those resources could no longer sustain the societies’ populations and cause subsequent collapse.

Tuberculosis originated in cattle as did diphtheria.

The first third of the book is incredibly boring and tedious I put the book down to read 5 other books before hsitory it up again and forcing myself to finish it. High school history textbooks should focus on this information more than the characters involved in the growth of western civilization. Why else do we tell them to eat their vegetables, fasten their seat belts and wash their hands.

I recognized the signs I had grown up recognizing in the American Southwest.

A New Green History Of The World : Clive Ponting :

Reading about yet another instance of human population growth outstripping its food supply, yet another way in which we pollute the earth, or yet another animal species that we have exterminated is painful, but imparts on the current environmental problems a sense oc magnitude that a mere polemic cannot give. I cannot recommend this book as a pleasant reading experience, but I unreservedly recommend it as an eye-opening one. Few places could afford even rudimentary sanitation services.

It was a wonderland for rats, wworld, flies, lice, and infectious diseases.

Our global society is now embarked on an incomparably massive resource extraction.


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As growth proceeds, individuals become mature at approximately cm in length. (“Pacific Seahorses, Hippocampus ingens”, ; Beller, ; Froese and. Find out what’s known about Pacific Seahorses, Hippocampus ingens, Actinopterygii, Syngnathiformes, Syngnathidae, including their world range and habitats. Genus, Hippocampus Rafinesque, – seahorses. Species, Hippocampus ingens Girard, – Pacific giant seahorse, Pacific seahorse, caballito del.

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Range number of offspring 50 to Range time to hatching 14 to hipoocampus days Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity female 3 to 6 months Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity male 3 to 6 minutes Males retain eggs in their brood pouches until they hatch.

Males retain eggs in their brood pouches until they hatch. Accessed February 05, at http: Deep Music Digitally Imported Pandora.

Pacific Seahorse (Hippocampus ingens)

Pacific seahorse Hippocampus ingens. Juveniles face higher risks of predation than adults because of their small size. They are often camouflaged within the branches of gorgonians and black coral trees where they are seen to curl their tail around the branches. They are often seen with their tails wrapped around black coral trees, strands of sea grasses and sea whips, and the branches of gorgonian corals, in order to camouflage themselves from predators.

So the seahorses anchor themselves to some or eelgrass or coral and blend in — they can even change colour to better hide themselves. Sexually mature females often develop a dark patch below the anal fin. They develop for days, depending on water temperature.

Embed this Arkive thumbnail link “portlet” by copying and pasting the code below. Mexico and Peru are the largest exporter of pacific seahorses, selling more than 1 dry ton annually. These uses have led to population declines and heightened concerns regarding conservation. Have been found in the stomachs of Pacific yellowfin tuna and bluefin tuna Ref.

Human uses

Blog Friday 05 October Wildscreen With: San Francisco State University. September 13, Author: Some mysids are scavengers. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute: They do not really have any other defence mechanism, since they are reasonably small and are quite poor swimmers.

Occasionally caught at surface.

After a period of time, varying from ten days to six weeks, depending on the species and water temperature, the male gives birth to hundreds of live, tiny, seahorses, which are miniature replicas of the adults. As the embryos develop, the fluid inside the pouch changes in salinity to acclimate the embryos to the salinity of the surrounding sea water.

Seahorses lack teeth, instead sucking prey in through their tube-like snouts. Giant seahorses are predators of small hippocanpus and zooplankton, while also being a food source to other animals. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Accessed March 14, at http: Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons or periodic condition changes.

At the end of the fourteen day hippofampus period, the male goes into labor and must force the young out of the pouch one at a time, sometimes taking hours. Pacific seahorses and Hippovampus seahorses split from this lineage 2. However, Giant seahorses have been found nigens the stomachs of some large fishes. Entered by Froese, Rainer.

Pacific seahorse videos, photos and facts – Hippocampus ingens | Arkive

Pacific seahorses feed on a diet of small invertebrates and zooplankton. They are occasionally caught at the surface. Class KinetoplastideaPhylum Euglenozoa. The female will then deposit her eggs in the pouch, and leave the male to do the rest of the work. Mating pairs will meet and rub their heads together, then intertwine their tails together and around a blade of sea ingenns or similar structure, performing a mating “dance” by bobbing up and down together.

Retrieved from ” https: Have been found in the stomachs of Pacific yellowfin tuna and bluefin tuna. Accessed February 19, at http: It has been hypothesized that the juveniles spend the first few months after birth in the open ocean.

Help us improve the site by taking our survey. Seahorses, Pipefishes, and Their Kin. AfricachimpanzeeconservationfilmIn the Fieldlab chimpsLiberiaPrimatesprimatologyrehabilitationtrue storywildlifewildlife filmWildscreen Festival.

This is based on their large juvenile dorsal fin and lack of juvenile anchoring behavior, and not specific field observation.


Dancing Through the Minefield: Some Observations on the Theory, Method, and Politics in Feminist Literary Criticism: Annette Kolodny: “Dancing Through the. Annette Kolodny quotes. Quote:”Dancing through the Minefield: Some Observations on the Theory, Practice, and Politics of a Feminist Literary Criticism” . Dancing Through the Minefield: Some Observations on the Theory, Practice, and Politics of a Feminist Annette Kolodny – – Feminist Studies 14 (3)

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Feminism and Literary Study: I chose this article by Kolodny because it marks a specific point in the history from which I can build in writing my essay. But neither is the text pure; it is also moulded by social relations and customs. While there can be no single ideology to which all feminist theories belong, Gardiner writes, there are some strong ideological concepts that define areas of feminism. But such a canon is formed by critics whose values of aestheticism are not neutral.

This page was last edited on 29 Augustat Our observation and evaluation of any work of art should depend on how we create or reshape our sense of the past. We have to go beyond the aesthetics evaluations and look for interpretive paradigms and develop our critical method of evaluation.

Our reading habits become fixed when we read a particular work of art which stylize our expectations to the others work which follow the first one.

What makes a text exciting is when it gives us the ability to relearn and refined it. Kolodny is also well known for two essays published in Turning the Lens on “The Panther Captivity”: Dancing Through the Minefield: Heyes – – Cornell University Press. Request removal from index. She insists, however, that she is not suggesting anything must go, simply that more women should be added.

Defining Women Through Feminist Practice.

The Same and the Different: It embodied, as well as upheld, the dominant ideology of the time, and had implications beyond aesthetic values. Both Bulkin and Patterson believe that Kolodny, while speaking to women in her essay, is only speaking to a certain group of women — those who are minnefield, middle classand heterosexual. Notify me of new comments via email.

History of Western Philosophy.

Reading classics of famous male writers does not let us to be close to them. So any critical interpretation is necessarily a product of two forms of social construction.

Annette Kolodny

Literary history is a fiction. You can leave a responseor trackback from your own site.

The book is organized chronologically, in much the same way as Lay of the Land. You are commenting using your WordPress. Gardiner, on the other hand, disagrees with Kolodny about the use of pluralism. Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. A Feminist Exercise in Practical Criticism. Because of our changed assumption, circumstances, and requirements, we get different meanings and different interpretations even if we read the same text different times.

Our understanding of the meaning of any text is a result of our needs and desires as well as our predisposition.

What makes any text exciting is when the text gives us the ability to relearn and refine it.

Her books have won many awards both in the United States and abroad. I was quite taken with this excerpt from Kolodny. Science Logic and Mathematics. Feminist Studies 6 1: Kolodny suggests that our understanding of the meaning of any text depend on our needs and desires as well as our predispositions. This new edition included an interpretive analysis of Nicolar’s text as well as a fascinating history of the Penobscot Nation in Maine.

Towards Marxist Feminist Biblical Criticism. Political Theory and Feminist Social Criticism. June Howard – – Feminist Studies 14 1: I suppose that it truly is evidence of a patriarchally controlled world that the portrait presented to most people of feminists is to use mild hyperbole one that consists only of indignant militants and not one of such delightful, impassioned, and brilliant thinkers as Kolodny.

ENGL PAB#1: On Annette Kolodny, “Dancing through the Minefield” | A. Lorean Hartness

The whole theory of Annette Kolodny is based on the differences between male and female ways of reading the codes of literature. Literary works about feminism criticism always interest me. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. The Yellow Wall Paper. While Kolodny is specifically speaking of feminist literary criticism, I think that all critics can learn from her elevation of truth and mutual understanding over any one particular ideology or dancihg of an ideology.


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Anarcho-Syndicalism book Anarcho-Syndicalist Review. They gasron not been appointed by a congress of the CNT because the repressive context in Spain forbade the calling of a congress. He was then 18 years old.

He visited the towns and villages of revolutionary Spain where people had opted to live a libertarian communist lifestyle almost without precedent in history, collectivizing the land, factories, and social services. In his book l’Insoumis, Gaston writes: In some lsval, in the Levante for instance, we have seen it start with distribution then proceed towards socialisation of production, which was the opposite procedure to most other places.

Part of a series on Anarcho-syndicalism Core tenets. We have said and repeated that the fascist attack created a favourable situation for the libertarian sector to take over an important part of the general situation and of almost the whole economy.

Gaston Leval – Wikipedia

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: However, there had been a clandestine plenum in Lerida, which had been gastob by the communists. He tried to convince the other delegations to take action against the imprisonment of anarchist and socialist activists.

These articles will constitute ,eval basis of his report to the congress of the CNT in Saragossa in Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. When he left prison, he went back to Barcelona where the anarchists were greatly preoccupied with the Russian revolution. For it parts company with the levsl party traditions on which the commune is normally based.

Yes, of course, fascism comes from capitalism in crisis, in its neoliberal avatar.

Gaston Leval Biography

Core tenets Anarchism Anarcho-syndicalist symbolism Co-operative economics Direct action General strike Industrial unionism Syndicalism Wage slavery Workers’ cooperative Workers’ council Workers’ self-management. The information he will bring, and those of Angel Pestana will lead to the definite separation of the CNT from the Third International.

But there were some cases where the Commune fulfilled the role of the Collective. A question of euphony perhaps, and of a breadth of ,eval, of humanism: Nevertheless the repercussions were only favourable, for negative and positive consequences were about equally balanced.

Amazon Renewed Refurbished products with a warranty. He then went to Saragossa and then returned to Barcelona where he worked in a forge until There were many strikes in Barcelona at that time and the anarchists were the first victims of police repression.

Additionally, he documented the revolution and the urban and rural anarchist collectives.

Gaston Leval: The Achievements of the Spanish Revolution | Robert Graham’s Anarchism Weblog

There’s a problem loading this menu right now. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Going deeply into these matters it could perhaps be said that they were developing a new concept of liberty. He traveled as a stowaway in the hold of a ship and reached Montevideo, with no ID papers.

Freedom Press July 5, Language: In Russia, Gaston asked a lot of questions, particularly about the thousands of anarchists who were in jail. But they also have as a consequence that other individuals join those who were the first to get together.

Robert Graham’s Anarchism Weblog Topics:. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. He also told us he had managed to meet Trotsky and told him about the anarchist prisoners. Leval left for Argentina during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera where he would live from to We didn’t know them.


Horst Rittel, one of the first to formalize a theory of wicked problems, cites ten characteristics of these complicated social issuesRittel, Horst. “Dilemmas in a. Horst Willhelm Jakob Rittel taught design and architecture for over. 30 years, yet he never designed a building or otherwise practiced as an architect. (We might. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Authors; Authors and affiliations. Horst W. J. Rittel; Melvin M. Webber. Horst W. J. Rittel. 1. Melvin M. Webber. 1. 1.

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Horst Rittel

A Catalog of Modern Engineering Paradigms. With wicked problems you never come to a “final”, “complete” or “fully correct” solution – since you have no objective criteria for such. International Public Management Network. What Rittel teaches us Rittel introduced several fundamental ideas: Jul 10, 7: This is also why attempting ritetl causally model or simulate the paths of development of such problem complexes is often worse than useless. Views Read Edit View history.

Thus, when defining problems, all stake-holders, experts, and designers are equally knowledgeable or unknowledgeable. Ellen Do’s Georgia Tech col lection of resources and links. They tried to bring ideas and tools from operations research, the emerging rittrl applications and systems studies to bear on architecture and planning. His efforts, while cumbersome, form the basis of an on-going line of inquiry within computer science known as design rationale.

Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Inc: Rlttel that has to do with people and society is ultimately subjective. Principal stakeholders and subject specialists should therefore be brought together in a series of workshops to collectively 1 structure as much of the problem space as possible, 2 synthesize solution spaces, 3 explore multiple solutions on the basis of different drivers and interests and 4 analyse stakeholder structures.

Problems are “wicked” not in the sense of being “evil”, but in that they are seriously devious and can have nasty unintended consequences for the planners who try to do something about them.

Finds these methodologies—and the 19th century view of science in which they are rooted—insufficient for innovation and design which are inherently political and subjective, rather than neutral and objective. They practically fell off their chairs with laughter! This can be a frustrating process for inveterate “problem solvers”, but is an absolutely necessary procedure when modelling wicked problems.

Wicked Problems

How should scientific and technological development be governed? Horst Wilhelm Jacob Rittel. Or, worse, sometimes the tame solution exacerbates the problem.

This allows one to change perspectives and treat different issues as both causes and effects. Study alone leads to more study, and results in the condition known as ‘analysis paralysis,’ a Catch 22 in which we can’t take action until we have more information, but we can’t get more information until someone takes action. The main reason for this is that there is no clear problem definition of wicked problems. This demands interdisciplinary collaboration, and most importantly, perseverance.

Adapted from a paper presented at the 16th Euro Conference on Operational Analysis. They are “wicked” problems, whereas science has de-veloped to deal with “tame” problems. Above all, WPs are about people as stakeholders: Thor Mann April 17, Contradiction, contest, and the production of intractable riytel.

They are too messy for this, which is why they have also been called social messes and unstructured reality Ackoff, ; Horn, Modelling Ritel Messes with Morphological Analysis”. It has served as a regular teaching tool, in order to demonstrate the typical difficulties of design and the different ways of dealing with them.

Christopher Alexander, Horst Rittel, C. West Churchman – Coevolving Innovations

Structuring Social Messes with Morphological Analysis”. Horxt had been a stubborn skeptic of the ambitions of artificial intelligence researchers, who seek to create computer programs that simulate intelligent behavior, or better yet, that surpass human intellectual capabilities.

With a morphological inference model, one can treat any particular parameter or “issue” as the starting point, driver or “independent” variable.

Note that there is no reference here to causality or probability, but only to possibility through mutual consistency. I choose to call such a system a mess.

The first is to shift the goal of action on significant problems from “solution” to “intervention. How can we design for effective conversation? Horst considered his work in chemistry, for which he received international recognition, to be a special case of this general theory. All of the parameter values in the morphological field are compared with one another, pair-wise, in the manner of a cross-impact matrix.

We have a job to deal with high road fatalities in Nigeria which you,ll agree is a wicked problem.